Background - Prostaglandins generated by cyclooxygenase (COX) have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. However, the role of individual COX isoenzymes as well as the molecular mechanisms linking oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes remains to be clarified. Methods and Results - Human aortic endothelial cells were exposed to normal (5.5 mmol/L) and high (22.2 mmol/L) glucose. Glucose selectively increased mRNA and protein expression of COX-2. Its upregulation was associated with an increase of thromboxane A 2 and a reduction of prostacyclin (PGI 2) release. Glucose-induced activation of PKC resulted in the formation of peroxynitrite and tyrosine nitration of PGI 2 synthase. NO release was reduced despite 2-fold increase of endothelial NO synthase expression. Phorbol ester caused an increase of COX-2 and endothelial NO synthase expression similar to that elicited by glucose. These effects were prevented by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C. N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C, and calphostin C prevented ROS formation, restored NO release, and reduced colocalization of nitrotyrosine and PGI 2 synthase. Expression of p22 phox, a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase, was increased, and diphenyleneiodonium inhibited ROS formation. By contrast, indomethacin did not affect glucose-induced ROS generation. Conclusions - Thus, high glucose, via PKC signaling, induces oxidative stress and upregulation of COX-2, resulting in reduced NO availability and altered prostanoid profile.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 25 2003|
- Diabetes mellitus
- Nitric oxide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine