Introduction: The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the prognostic impact of residual T1 high-grade (HG)/G3 tumors at re-transurethral resection (TUR of bladder tumor) in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients with primary T1 HG/G3 bladder cancer (BC). Patients and Methods: The study period was from January 2002 to December 2012. A total of 1,046 patients with primary T1 HG/G3 and who had non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) on re-TUR followed by adjuvant intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy with maintenance were included. Endpoints were time to disease recurrence, progression, and overall and cancer-specific death. Results: A total of 257 (24.6%) patients had residual T1 HG/G3 tumors. The presence of concomitant carcinoma in situ, multiple and large tumors (> 3 cm) at first TUR were associated with residual T1 HG/G3. Five-year recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were 17% (CI 11.8–23); 58.2% (CI 50.7–65); 73.7% (CI 66.3–79.7); and 84.5% (CI 77.8–89.3), respectively, in patients with residual T1 HG/G3, compared to 36.7% (CI 32.8–40.6); 71.4% (CI 67.3–75.2); 89.8% (CI 86.6–92.3); and 95.7% (CI 93.4–97.3), respectively, in patients with NMIBC other than T1 HG/G3 or T0 tumors. Residual T1 HG/G3 was independently associated with RFS, PFS, OS, and CSS in multivariable analyses. Conclusions: Residual T1 HG/G3 tumor at re-TUR confers worse prognosis in patients with primary T1 HG/G3 treated with maintenance BCG. Patients with residual T1 HG/G3 for primary T1 HG/G3 are very likely to fail BCG therapy alone.
- Bladder cancer
- High risk
- Second look resection
- Transurethral resection of bladder tumor