High-mobility group box 1 protein orchestrates responses to tissue damage via inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and tissue repair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

© 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd A single protein, HMGB1, directs the triggering of inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, and tissue healing after damage. HMGB1 is the best characterized damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), proteins that are normally inside the cell but are released after cell death, and allow the immune system to distinguish between antigens that are dangerous or not. Notably, cells undergoing severe stress actively secrete HMGB1 via a dedicated secretion pathway: HMGB1 is relocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then to secretory lysosomes or directly to the extracellular space. Extracellular HMGB1 (either released or secreted) triggers inflammation and adaptive immunological responses by switching among multiple oxidation states, which direct the mutually exclusive choices of different binding partners and receptors. Immune cells are first recruited to the damaged tissue and then activated; thereafter, HMGB1 supports tissue repair and healing, by coordinating the switch of macrophages to a tissue-healing phenotype, activation and proliferation of stem cells, and neoangiogenesis. Inevitably, HMGB1 also orchestrates the support of stressed but illegitimate tissues: tumors. Concomitantly, HMGB1 enhances the immunogenicity of mutated proteins in the tumor (neoantigens), promoting anti-tumor responses and immunological memory. Tweaking the activities of HMGB1 in inflammation, immune responses and tissue repair could bring large rewards in the therapy of multiple medical conditions, including cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-82
Number of pages9
JournalImmunological Reviews
Volume280
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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