High preoperative plasma endothelin-1 levels are associated with increased acute kidney injury risk after pulmonary endarterectomy

Fabrizio Grosjean, Mara De Amici, Catherine Klersy, Gianluca Marchi, Antonio Sciortino, Federica Spaltini, Maurizio Pin, Valentina Grazioli, Anna Celentano, Benedetta Vanini, Giorgia Testa, Vincenzo Sepe, Teresa Rampino, Andrea Maria D’Armini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The only curative treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). PEA requires cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) which is associated with a high acute kidney injury (AKI) risk. Circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels are elevated in CTEPH, and ET-1 plays a pivotal role in AKI. Because AKI is burdened by high morbidity and mortality, we aimed to evaluate the association between preoperative ET-1 and the risk to develop AKI in CTEPH individuals who undergo PEA. We also evaluated the association of AKI and ET-1 with kidney function and mortality at 1 year after PEA. Methods: In 385 consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH who underwent PEA at the Foundation IRCC Policlinico San Matteo (Pavia, Italy) from January 2009 to April 2015, we assessed preoperative circulating ET-1 by ELISA and identified presence of AKI based on 2012 KDIGO criteria. Results: AKI occurred in 26.5% of the 347 patients included in the analysis, and was independently associated with preoperative ET-1 (p = 0.008), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.022), male gender (p = 0.005) and duration of CPB (p = 0.002). At 1-year post PEA, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) significantly improved in patients who did not develop AKI [ΔeGFR 5.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI 3.6–7.6), p < 0.001] but not in those with perioperative AKI. AKI (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), preoperative eGFR (p < 0.001) and systemic hypertension diagnosis (p = 0.015) were independently associated with 1-year ΔeGFR. Neither perioperative AKI nor preoperative ET-1 was associated with 1-year survival. Conclusion: Perioperative AKI is associated with higher preoperative circulating ET-1 and it negatively influences long-term kidney function in patients with CTEPH who undergo PEA.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Nephrology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018


  • Acute kidney failure
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass
  • Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
  • ET-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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