High prevalence of advanced retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

Giuseppe Pugliese, Anna Solini, Giacomo Zoppini, Cecilia Fondelli, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Monica Vedovato, Franco Cavalot, Olga Lamacchia, Raffaella Buzzetti, Susanna Morano, Antonio Nicolucci, Giuseppe Penno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims: The natural history of diabetic complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), is changing due to improved care. This study aimed at assessing prevalence of advanced DR and its correlation with risk factors and complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. Methods: This study enrolled 15,773 patients visiting consecutively 19 Diabetes Clinics in years 2007-2008. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy and classified according to the Global Diabetic Retinopathy Project Group. Results: Advanced DR was observed in 9.8% of patients (4.2% pre-proliferative, 4.2% proliferative, 1.3% maculopathy, 0.1% blindness). Advanced DR was independently associated with hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, diabetes duration and treatment, particularly with insulin, hypertension, previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), albuminuria and, inversely, age, age at diabetes diagnosis, smoking and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Maculopathy alone was associated with female gender, but not HbA1c, hypertension and age. Conclusions: We found an alarming high prevalence of advanced DR in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the RIACE cohort, suggesting that the expected favorable effect of improved diabetes management has not emerged yet. Independent correlates of advanced DR were indexes of glycemic exposure, hypertension, CVD, albuminuria and, inversely, age at diagnosis and smoking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-337
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Volume98
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

Keywords

  • Advanced diabetic retinopathy
  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Prevalence
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology

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