Whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) should be modified in patients with persistent increases in CD4+ T cells despite detectable viral loads is an unresolved question. Forty-three heavily pretreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with virologic failure during HAART were studied before a change of therapy guided by genotypic analysis and during follow-up. Patients with an increase in CD4+ cell count (>100 cells/ml) over pre-HAART values were considered to be discordant patients (20 individuals), whereas patients with a lower increase or no increase in CD4+ cell count were considered failing patients (23 individuals). Based on univariate analysis, a high CD4+ cell count before antiretroviral treatment, homosexual behavior as a risk factor for HIV infection, reduced drug exposure to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, low replicative capacity of HIV isolates, and more frequent detection of HIV isolates with a non-B subtype, an R5 biological phenotype, and M184V and T215Y/F mutations were factors associated with a discordant response to HAART. Based on multivariate analysis, only the M184V mutation remained significantly associated with a viroimmunologic discordant response (odds ratio, 25.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43 to 453.93). No difference in lamivudine exposure was found between discordant (95%) and failing (91%) patients. Twelve months after the genotypic analysis-guided change of therapy, 3 discordant (15%) and 6 failing patients (26%) achieved undetectable viral loads (500 copies/mi, discordant responses were observed in 5 out of 15 discordant patients and in 4 out of 16 failing patients. A relationship between the M184V mutation and a viroimmunologic discordant response to HAART was found. After the genotypic analysis-driven change of therapy, similar rates of virologic suppression were detected in the two groups.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)