High resolution mass spectrometry to investigate omeprazole and venlafaxine metabolites in wastewater

Clara Boix, María Ibáñez, Renzo Bagnati, Ettore Zuccato, Juan V. Sancho, Félix Hernández, Sara Castiglioni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study reports an investigation of omeprazole and venlafaxine parent substances and metabolites in Italian municipal influent wastewaters (IWWs). These pharmaceuticals were selected because they are widely consumed in Italy, but are poorly detected in waste and surface water. The aim of the study was to identify the most relevant pharmaceuticals metabolites in wastewater in order to improve the prioritization step and choose priority pollutants for environmental monitoring campaigns. This was done by investigating omeprazole, venlafaxine and their main metabolites in 30 IWWs from ten Italian cities and by comparing results with information from pharmacokinetic studies. Analysis was performed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). We searched for 23 omeprazole and four venlafaxine metabolites using data-dependent and MS/MS methods. Parent omeprazole was never present in the samples. Six omeprazole metabolites were found in IWWs. Venlafaxine and two metabolites were present in all the samples. The metabolic profiles in Italian IWW agreed with results in IWW from Spain and with urinary excretion profiles from pharmacokinetic studies. Comparing results from different sources was useful to improve the identification of pharmaceuticals metabolites in environmental samples and to focus the attention of future studies on the most relevant compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)332-340
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - Jan 25 2016


  • High resolution mass spectrometry
  • Liquid chromatography
  • Metabolites
  • Omeprazole
  • Untreated wastewater
  • Venlafaxine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'High resolution mass spectrometry to investigate omeprazole and venlafaxine metabolites in wastewater'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this