Highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

Giuseppe Barbaro, Giorgio Barbarini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, with longer survival and improved quality of life of HIV-infected subjects. However, HAART regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors, have been shown to cause in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary artery disease and stroke). A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular monitoring of patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-165
Number of pages5
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Metabolic syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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