Gam1 is an early gene product of the avian adenovirus CELO and is essential for viral replication . Gam1 has no homology to any known proteins; however, its early expression and nuclear localization suggest that the protein functions to influence transcription in the infected cell. A determinant of eukaryotic gene expression is the acetylation state of chromosomal histones and other nuclear proteins . We find that Gam1 expression increases the level of transcription from a variety of eukaryotic promoters, similar to the effect of treating cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA ). We show that Gam1 can effectively inhibit histone deacetylation by HDAC1 and that Gam1 binds to HDAC1 both in vitro and in vivo. A CELO virus lacking Gam1 (CELOdG) is replication defective , but the defect can be overcome by either expressing an interfering HDAC1 mutant or by treating infected cells with TSA. The identification of a viral early gene product having the specific function of binding and inactivating HDAC suggests that deacetylase complexes play an important role in limiting early gene expression from invading viruses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)