History of reconstructive rhinoplasty

Isabella C. Mazzola, Riccardo F. Mazzola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Amputation of the nose was practiced as a sign of humiliation to adulterers, thieves, and prisoners of war by certain ancient populations. To erase this disfigurement, numerous techniques were invented over the centuries. In India, where this injury was common, advancement cheek flaps were performed (around 600 BC). The forehead flap was introduced much later, probably around the 16th century. The Venetian adventurer Manuzzi, in writing a report about the Mughal Empire in the second half of the 17th century gave the description of the forehead rhinoplasty. Detailed information concerning the Indian forehead flap reached the Western world in 1794, thanks to a letter to the editor that appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine. From this episode, one can date the beginning of a widespread interest in rhinoplasty and in plastic surgery in general. In Europe, nasal reconstruction started in the 15th century in Sicily with the Brancas, initially with cheek flaps and then with arm flaps. At the beginning of the 16th century, rhinoplasty developed in Calabria (Southern Italy) with the Vianeos. In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi, Professor of Surgery at Bologna, improved the arm flap technique and published a book entirely devoted to this art. He is considered the founder of plastic surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-236
Number of pages10
JournalFacial Plastic Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • arm flap
  • forehead flap
  • history of nasal reconstruction
  • nasal reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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