7 individuals who were negative for HIV-1 antibody in a licensed serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were positive in a urine EIA and western blot (WB). Follow-up in individuals by use of a cell-mediated immune response showed 1 positive and 1 negative for HIV-1 peptide reactivity. In a second study, 4 out of 5 subjects positive by urine EIA and indeterminate or negative by serum WB were HIV-1 peptide positive in the cell-mediated immune test. Comparison of cell-mediated responses with urine antibody responses may help to resolve discrepant HIV-1 results. Lancet 1993; 342: 1458-59.
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