HIV-1 Tat protein released by infected cells is a chemotactic molecule for leukocytes and induces a proinflammatory program in endothelial cells (EC) by activating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors expressed on both cell types. Its potential role in causing vascular permeability and leukocyte recruitment was studied in vivo following its s.c. injection in mice. Tat caused a dose-dependent early (15 min) and late (6 h) wave of permeability that were inhibited by a neutralizing Ab anti-VEGF receptor type 2. Tissue infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells, mainly monocytes (76%), was evident at 6 h and persisted up to 24 h. WEB2170, a platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, reduced the early leakage by 70-80%, but only slightly inhibited the late wave and cell recruitment. In vitro, Tat induced a dose-dependent flux of albumin through the EC monolayer that was inhibited by Ab anti-vascular VEGF receptor type 2 and WEB2170, and PAF synthesis in EC that was blocked by the Ab anti-VEGF receptor type 2. Lastly, an anti-monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1) Ab significantly reduced the lymphomononuclear infiltration elicited by Tat. In vitro, Tat induced a dose-dependent production of MCP-1 by EC after a 24-h stimulation. These results highlighted the role of PAF and MCP-1 as secondary mediators in the onset of lymphomononuclear cell recruitment in tissues triggered by Tat.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 15 2001|
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