Objectives: The objective was to study genotypic correlates of discordant interpretations of amprenavir (APV) resistance between a rules-based algorithm and either recombinant phenotype or virtual phenotype. Methods: HIV resistance mutations found in patients from the GenPheRex study were interpreted with VGI-TRUGENE (version 5.0; VGI) and compared with either recombinant-phenotype (Antivirogram, r-PHT) or virtual-phenotype (Virtual-Phenotype, v-PHT) interpreted through Virco biological cut-offs. Results: Among 180 samples available, 56 (31.1%) were discordant with the observed genotype interpretation results, as a result of being judged as sensitive by r-PHT or v-PHT but resistant by VGI (S/R). Only the I84V mutation was almost invariably found in concordant resistant isolates compared with S/R isolates (60% versus 0%, respectively; P <0.0001). Notwithstanding this, the number of multi-protease inhibitor-associated mutations (PAMs) was significantly higher in the concordant resistant isolates; the prevalence of >3 PAMs was 56.52% versus 33.93% in R/R and S/R isolates, respectively (P = 0.01). Correspondence analysis confirmed the relevance of PAMs, although additional mutations appeared to be correlated with APV resistance. Conclusions: The rate of discordance between rules-based and either r-PHT or v-PHT interpretations for APV was high. Mutation I84V and accumulation of >3 PAMs were found to be associated with resistance as interpreted with all systems tested. However, our results indicate that a number of mutations may have an impact on APV resistance, but that they are missed by current interpretation algorithms and this merits further investigations.
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