The high mobility group As (HMGAs) belong to a family of nonhistone nuclear proteins that orchestrate the assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. Through a complex network of protein-DNA and protein-protein interaction, they play important roles in gene transcription, recombination, and chromatin structure. This protein family is involved, through different mechanisms, in both benign and malignant neo-plasias. We have recently reported that transgenic mice carrying the Hmgal or Hmga2 genes under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promoter develop pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin and growth hormone. We have shown that the mechanism of the HMGA2-induced pituitary adenoma is based on the increased E2F1 activity. The expression profile of mouse normal pituitary glands and adenomas induced in HMGA transgenic mice revealed an increased expression of the ccnb2 gene, coding for the cyclin B2 protein, in the neoplastic tissues compared with the normal pituitary gland. Here, we show, by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation, a direct binding of HMGA proteins to the promoter of ccnb2 gene, whereas luciferase assays showed that HMGAs are able to up-regulate ccnb2 promoter activity. Finally, we report an increased CCNB2 expression in human pituitary adenomas of different histotypes that is directly correlated with HMGAl and HMGA2 expression. Because cyclin B2 is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, these results taken together indicate that HMGA-induced cyclin B2 overexpression gives an important contribution to experimental and human pituitary tumorigenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research