Hormonal consequences and prognosis of chronic heart failure

Philipp Attanasio, Stefan D. Anker, Wolfram Doehner, Stephan Von Haehling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major public health problem. The failure to provide peripheral tissues with sufficient amounts of oxygen is accompanied by maladaptive responses that include pathophysiological pathways that may lead to an anabolic-catabolic imbalance with the development of cardiac cachexia. This review aims to highlight players of the catabolic-anabolic imbalance, regulators or appetite, and other mediators that are involved in the progression of CHF to cachexia. Recent Findings: Clinical research has buttressed the view that deficiencies or resistance to growth hormone and testosterone plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CHF. The role of appetite regulation in the development of cardiac cachexia is also subject of recent studies. The resistance of CHF patients to the effects of appetite-stimulating peptide ghrelin may be one of the contributing factors. These circumstances drive muscle, bone, and fat wasting. Plasma levels of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin may have a role in the detection of such wasting processes. Summary: Hormonal signaling pathways play an essential role in the development of cardiac cachexia. Recent findings enhance our understanding of the complex interplay between these regulators and may serve as a hub for the development of therapeutic interventions to prevent or potentially even to treat cardiac cachexia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-230
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011


  • Adipokines
  • anabolic-catabolic disbalance
  • appetite regulation
  • cardiac cachexia
  • chronic heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Hormonal consequences and prognosis of chronic heart failure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this