Hormonal profile in mild heart failure

M. Volpe, C. Tritto, M. Condorelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Neurohormonal activation is a fundamental component in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. In fact it represents a mechanism consecutive to cardiac dysfunction that favours the development of congestion and of further heart failure through vasoconstriction and water and salt retention. The time of onset and the mechanisms responsible for neurohormonal activation in heart failure are not defined. This brief article reviews this topic and summarizes the findings of studies that investigated the dynamic adaptations of hormonal mechanisms in the milder or initial stages of heart failure. An early characterization and detection of the abnormalities of the hormonal responses to salt or volume changes may be useful for a better comprehension and the treatment of the initial stage of the disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-494
Number of pages12
JournalActa Cardiologica
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Hormonal profile in mild heart failure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this