Mounting evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) contribute to tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In acute reactions to cancer therapy, several types of BMDCs are rapidly mobilized to home tumors. Although this host reaction to therapy can promote tumor regrowth, its contribution to metastasis has not been explored. To focus only on the effects of chemotherapy on the host, we studied non-tumor-bearing mice. Plasma from animals treated with the chemotherapy paclitaxel induced angiogenesis, migration, and invasion of tumor cells along with host cell colonization. Lesser effects were seen with the chemotherapy gemcitabine. Conditioned medium from BMDCs and plasma from chemotherapy-treated mice each promoted metastatic properties in tumor cells by inducing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In mice in which Lewis lung carcinoma cells were injected intravenously, treatment with paclitaxel, but not gemcitabine or vehicle, accelerated metastases in a manner that could be blocked by an MMP9 inhibitor. Moreover, chimeric mice reconstituted with BMDC where MMP9 activity was attenuated did not support accelerated metastasis by carcinoma cells that were pretreated with chemotherapy before their introduction to host animals. Taken together, our findings illustrate how some chemotherapies can exert prometastatic effects that may confound treatment outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research