Opioids are widely used in treatment of acute and chronic pain patients, and today a lot of efforts are put into individualize these therapies. Physicians would like to reduce deaths, minimize side effects and prevent toxicity, but - nevertheless PCA could represent a solution - up to date it is not yet completely reliable. A sustaining pharmacokinetic approach gives significant contribution, in particular in treatment of special populations (e.g. infants, elderly, and patients with renal/liver failure), which have a unique opioids pharmacokinetic profile to be taken into account, in order to maximize analgesic efficacy and reduce the risk of adverse events.
- Renal and liver failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine