How to improve the teaching of urine microscopy

Giovanni B. Fogazzi, Giuseppe Garigali, Barbara Pirovano, Maria Teresa Muratore, Sara Raimondi, Silvia Berti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Urinary microscopy is difficult to teach. This paper describes a 1-day course on urine microscopy, which was based on both theoretical and practical sessions at the microscope, during which real urine samples were examined. Methods: The course was based on: a) an introductory presentation with slides on the main components of urinary sediments and their clinical correlates; b) examination of fixed urine samples under the guidance of two experts; and c) the use of two microscopes, each equipped with a co-observation device for up to 15 observers. Results: Throughout 2005, four courses were held in four Italian towns. Altogether, there were 97 participants (20-27 per course) from 75 laboratories, all graduates with wide but variable experience in the field. During each course, 17-22 urinary sediment components were shown by both bright-field and phase-contrast microscopy and, when indicated, by polarized light. Tests set before and after the course showed a significant improvement (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-412
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2007


  • Phase-contrast microscopy
  • Polarized-light microscopy
  • Urinalysis
  • Urinary sediment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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