How to interpret cardiopulmonary exercise tests

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Exercise intolerance and related symptoms are cardinal manifestations of most cardiopulmonary disorders. Assessing the functional response with gas exchange analysis by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is now the gold standard for thoroughly assessing the pathophysiological derangements behind these diseases. CPX provides an assessment of the integrative response involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular, muscular, and cellular oxidative systems, which are not adequately reflected thorough the measurement of individual organ system function. Accordingly, CPX is now being used in a wide spectrum of clinical settings for evaluation of undiagnosed exercise intolerance, and the test's popularity is increasing due to recent statements and official documents that have provided simplified and easy-to-apply reports that may consistently help the practicing clinician with their interpretations and clinical directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-36
Number of pages6
JournalHeart and Metabolism
Issue number64
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Cardiopulmonary exercise
  • Oxygen consumption
  • Ventilation inefficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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