How to Surge to Face the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak: Lessons Learned from Lombardy, Italy

Roberto Faccincani, Federico Pascucci, Sten Lennquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Italy is fighting against one of the worst medical emergency since the 1918 Spanish Flu. Pressure on the hospitals is tremendous. As for official data on March 14th: 8372 admitted in hospitals, 1518 in intensive care units, 1441 deaths (175 more than the day before). Unfortunately, hospitals are not prepared: even where a plan for massive influx of patients is present, it usually focuses on sudden onset disaster trauma victims (the most probable case scenario), and it has not been tested, validated, or propagated to the staff. Despite this, the All Hazards Approach for management of major incidents and disasters is still valid and the 4S theory (staff, stuff, structure, systems) for surge capacity can be guidance to respond to this disaster.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e39-e41
JournalDisaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • disease outbreaks
  • novel coronavirus
  • pandemia
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • surge capacity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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