Although long-term protection is a key-point in evaluating HPV-vaccine over time, there is currently inadequate information on the duration of HPV vaccine-induced immunity and on the mechanisms related to the activation of immune-memory. Longer-term surveillance in a vaccinated population is needed to identify waning immunity, evaluating any requirements for booster immunizations to assess vaccine efficacy against HPV-diseases. Current prophylactic vaccines have the primary end-points to protect against HPV-16 and 18, the genotypes more associated to cervical cancer worldwide. Nevertheless, data from many countries demonstrate the presence, at significant levels, of HPVs that are not included in the currently available vaccine preparations, indicating that these vaccines could be less effective in a particular area of the world. The development of vaccines covering a larger number of HPVs presents the most complex challenge for the future. Therefore, long term immunization and cross-protection of HPV vaccines will be discussed in light of new approaches for the future.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)