cDNA encoding the 280-kDa acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) isoform was isolated from human liver using the polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing the cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 7,449 base pairs (bp) that encode 2,483 amino acids (M(r) 279,380). Using 5-kilobase pair cDNA clones as probes, we localized the gene encoding the 280-kDa human carboxylase to chromosome 12q23. When the cDNA of ACC2 was compared with that of ACC1, the nucleotide sequences and the predicted amino acid sequences had about 60 and 80% identity, respectively. Ser77 and Ser79, which were found to be critical for the phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of rat ACC1 (Ser78 and Ser80 of human ACC1), are conserved in ACC2 and are represented as Ser219 and Ser221, respectively. On the other hand, Ser1200, which is also a phosphorylation site in rat ACC1 (Ser1201 of human ACC1), is not conserved in ACC2. The homology between the amino acid sequences of the two human carboxylases, however, is primarily found downstream of residues Ser78 and Ser81 in human ACC1 and their equivalents, that is Ser219 and Ser221 in ACC2, suggesting that the sequence of the first 218 amino acids at the N terminus of ACC2 represents a unique peptide that accounts, in part, for the variance between the two carboxylases. Using a cDNA probe (400 bp) that encodes the N-terminal amino acid residues of ACC2 in Northern blot analyses of different human and mouse tissues showed that ACC2 is predominantly expressed in liver, heart, and the skeletal muscles. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the N-terminal peptide (amino acid residues 1-220) reacted specifically and equally with human and rat ACC2 carboxylases, confirming the uniqueness of this N-terminal peptide and its conservation in animal ACC2. In addition, we present evidence for the presence of an isoform of ACC2 (M(r) 270,000) in human liver that differs from the 280-kDa ACC2 by the absence of 303 nucleotides that encode 101 amino acids in the region between Arg1114 and Asp1215. The regulation and physiological significance of the two ACC2 isoforms remain to be determined.
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