Human arterial ring angiogenesis assay

Giorgio Seano, Luca Primo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In this chapter we describe a model of human angiogenesis where artery explants from umbilical cords are embedded in gel matrices and subsequently produce capillary-like structures. The human arterial ring (hAR) assay is an innovative system that enables three-dimensional (3D) and live studies of human angiogenesis. This ex vivo model has the advantage of recapitulating several steps of angiogenesis, including endothelial sprouting, migration, and differentiation into capillaries. Furthermore, it can be exploited for (1) identification of new genes regulating sprouting angiogenesis, (2) screening for pro- or anti-angiogenic drugs, (3) identification of biomarkers to monitor the efficacy of anti-angiogenic regimens, and (4) dynamic analysis of tumor microenvironmental effects on vessel formation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)10643745


  • 3D cell culture
  • Drug discovery
  • Human explants
  • Lentiviral transduction
  • Sprouting angiogenesis
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • Umbilical artery
  • VEGF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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