Adenovirus-transduced CD34 + cells expressing membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (CD34-TRAIL + cells) exert potent antitumor activity. To further investigate the mechanism(s) of action of CD34-TRAIL + cells, we analyzed their homing properties as well as antitumor and antivascular effects using a subcutaneous myeloma model in immunodeficient mice. After intravenous injection, transduced cells homed in the tumor peaking at 48 hours when 188 plus or minus 25 CD45 + cells per 10 5 tumor cells were detected. Inhibition experiments showed that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL + cells was largely mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and stromal cell-derived factor-1. Both CD34-TRAIL + cells and soluble (s)TRAIL significantly reduced tumor volume by 40% and 29%, respectively. Computer-aided analysis of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-stained tumor sections demonstrated significantly greater effectiveness for CD34-TRAIL + cells in increasing tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis over sTRAIL. Proteome array analysis indicated that CD34-TRAIL + cells and sTRAIL activate similar apoptotic machinery. In vivo staining of tumor vasculature with sulfosuccinimidyl-6-(biotinamido) hexanoate-biotin revealed that CD34-TRAIL + cells but not sTRAIL significantly damaged tumor vasculature, as shown by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling + endothelial cells, appearance of hemorrhagic areas, and marked reduction of endothelial area. These results demonstrate that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL + cells induces early vascular disruption, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis and tumor destruction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology