Human milk and formulae: Neurotrophic and new biological factors

Laura D. Serpero, Alessandro Frigiola, Diego Gazzolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mother milk is widely accepted to be a unique product believed to contain biological factors involved in the regulation of newborn optimal growth including brain when compared to milk-formula milks. In this setting, there is growing evidence that in milk-formula neuro-oxidative stress biomarkers, neurotrophic proteins and calcium binding proteins, known to be involved in a cascade of events leading to brain, cardiac and vascular development/damage, are to date lacking or at a lower concentration than breast milk.Therefore, this review is aimed at offering additional insights to the role in human milk of some selected biomarkers such as: i) neurotrophic factors such as Activin A; ii) Calcium binding protein such as S100B and, iii) heat shock protein known to be involved in oxidative stress response (namely hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1 or Heat shock Protein 32, HSP32).

Original languageEnglish
JournalEarly Human Development
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


  • Activin A
  • Brain development
  • Feeding
  • HO-1
  • Milk
  • Milk-formulae
  • Newborn
  • S100B

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


Dive into the research topics of 'Human milk and formulae: Neurotrophic and new biological factors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this