Human nasal immune system: A special site for immune response establishment

A. Porzia, C. Cavaliere, E. Begvarfaj, S. Masieri, F. Mainiero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The mucosal immune system located in correspondence to the olfactory organs in adult humans is not well identifiable but has proven important in establishing an effective immune response against inhaled antigens, including the generation of Helper 1 (TH1)- and TH2-cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells. It is constituted by a diffused network of cells of epithelial and immune origin, as well as organized lymphoid tissue, where each component has a role in the initiation and maintenance of a long-lasting immune response, which is evoked not only in the oral and nasal cavities but also in the respiratory, intestinal and genito-urinary tracts. These peculiarities, in association to the easy anatomical accessibility of such immunological site, render the nasal mucosa a good candidate for the development of vaccine, even if a better understanding of the mechanism of the immune response induction as well as finding a safe adjuvant are necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-8
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018


  • IgA
  • NALT
  • Nasal vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Physiology
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Endocrinology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cancer Research


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