The cancer stem cell model links neoplastic cells with normal stem cell biology, but little is known on how normal stem cells are transformed into cancer stem cells. Methods: To investigate the processes underlying the transformation of normal stem cells we developed in vitro a cancer stem cell model from human amniotic and chorionic placenta membranes. In this model we studied the expression of specific stem cell molecules by flow cytometry, and genes, by real time RT-PCR. Microscopy immunfluorescence was employed to investigate the proliferative and differentiation patterns. Fluorescence microscopy and FACS were employed to investigate the proliferative and differentiation patterns. To evaluate the tumorigenic potential of our model we injected the cells into NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/NCrHsd mice. Results: Normal human stem cells from amniotic and chorionic placenta membranes were converted into neural cell lineages, under specific conditions, to form secondary neurospheres with a capacity for self-renewal. After extensive in vitro culture, these cells underwent spontaneous transformations and acquired a neuroblastoma (NB)-like phenotype with an elevated proliferative potential that is comparable to established neuroblastoma cell lines. The ability of these cells to transform their phenotype was evidenced by increased clonogenic ability in vitro; by augmented expression level of certain proliferation- and transformation-related genes (e.g., CCNA2, MYCN, ENPP2, GRIA3, and KIT); by the presence of multinucleated and hyperdiploid cells. We further demonstrated that the transformed phenotype is an NB by measuring the expression of NB-specific markers, disialoganglioside GD2 and N-Myc proteins. Conclusions: We have developed a cancer stem cell model starting from normal human stem cells derived from amniotic and chorionic placenta membranes. These cells are able to differentiate into neural cell lineages and to undergo spontaneous transformations and acquire an NB-like phenotype.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Molecular Medicine
- Cell Biology
- Medicine (miscellaneous)