Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive and irreversible muscle atrophy. The diagnosis of ALS is time-consuming and complex, with the clinical and neurophysiological evaluation accompanied by monitoring of progression and a long procedure for the discrimination of similar neurodegenerative diseases. The delayed diagnosis strongly slows the potential development of adequate therapies and the time frame for a prompt intervention. The discovery of new biomarkers could improve the disease diagnosis, as well as the therapeutic and rehabilitative effectiveness and monitoring of the pathological progression. In this work saliva collected from 19 patients with ALS, 10 affected by Parkinson’s disease, 10 affected by Alzheimer’s disease and 10 healthy subjects, was analysed using Raman spectroscopy, optimizing the parameters for detailed and reproducible spectra. The statistical multivariate analysis of the data revealed a significant difference between the groups, allowing the discrimination of the disease onset. Correlation of Raman data revealed a direct relationship with paraclinical scores, identifying multifactorial biochemical modifications related to the pathology. The proposed approach showed a promising accuracy in ALS onset discrimination, using a fast and sensitive procedure that can make more efficient the diagnostic procedure and the monitoring of therapeutic and rehabilitative processes in ALS.