Hybrid procedure of right ventricle outflow tract stenting in small infants with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect: early and mid-term results from a single centre

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IntroductionPulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries, and pulmonary arteries hypoplasia are rare and complex congenital defects that require early interventions to relieve cyanosis and enhance the growth of native pulmonary arteries. The treatment of these patients is still controversial. Surgical techniques require cardiopulmonary bypass which is poorly tolerated by small infants. Percutaneous techniques such as radiofrequency perforation can be challenging. The hybrid technique consists of perventricular stenting of the right ventricle outflow tract through medial sternotomy, to restore native pulmonary flow.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the cardiovascular database of our centre in order to analyse our experience in hybrid procedure. We detected six patients who underwent hybrid first approach between November 2007 and December 2015. We report our early results and mid-term outcomes.

RESULTS: Median age at the procedure was 26 days, median weight was 3150 g, and median Nakata index was 52 mm2/m2. All procedures were successful except for one: this patient underwent a surgical shunt. No immediate and early deaths or major complications occurred and oxygen saturation levels increased in all the patients. Patients were followed up for a period of 12-103 months, and four of them underwent a procedure of unifocalisation at the mean age of 12.5 months.

CONCLUSIONS: We reported data from the largest series of patients who underwent this hybrid procedure. Our experience demonstrated encouraging results to expand the use of this approach to bridge high-risk patients with diminutive pulmonary arteries to a second step of surgical repair.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-379
Number of pages5
JournalCardiology in the Young
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019



  • Abnormalities, Multiple
  • Angiography
  • Cardiac Catheterization/methods
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/diagnosis
  • Heart Ventricles/surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Artery/surgery
  • Pulmonary Atresia/diagnosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

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