Hydrocephalus and porencephaly

Pierangelo Veggiotti, Federica Teutonico

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Hydrocephalus Clinical forms and epidemiology Hydrocephalus is defined as the condition in which the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is increased in all part of the intracranial fluid spaces, and in which the increased volume is not due to primary atrophy or dysgenesis of the brain. The incidence of hydrocephalus is not perfectly known – the usually reported incidence of 3 per 1000 live births applies only to congenital cases. In recent years, systematic fetal ultrasonography during pregnancy has modified our knowledge of the incidence of congenital hydrocephalus: in Sweden Fernell et al. (1994) found a mean prevalence with onset in the first year of life of 0.53 per 1000 during 1967–82, with an increasing trend from 0.48 in 1967–70 to 0.63 in 1979–82. The origin of hydrocephalus differed between preterm and term infants: in term infants the origin was considered to be prenatal in 70%, perinatal in 25%, and postnatal in 5%. Hydrocephalus represents a heterogeneous group of clinical conditions that can be classified according to different elements: type of onset (acute vs. chronic), etiology, or age of onset. The most common causes of antenatal hydrocephalus include malformations of the CSF pathways or, more extensively, the brain, and abnormal events during pregnancy (infections, intra- or periventricular hemorrhage, trauma).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Causes of Epilepsy: Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children
PublisherCambridge University Press
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9780511921001, 9780521114479
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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