Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: Management of Children and Adults in Clinical Practice

M. B. Bilò, V. Pravettoni, D. Bignardi, P. Bonadonna, M. Mauro, E. Novembre, O. Quercia, M. Cilia, G. Cortellini, M. T. Costantino, L. Cremonte, F. Lodi Rizzini, L. Macchia, F. Marengo, F. Murzilli, V. Patella, F. Reccardini, L. Ricciardi, E. Ridolo, A. RomanoE. Savi, D. Schiavino, M. Severino, E. A. Pastorello

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hymenoptera venom allergy is an epidemiologically underestimated condition and a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Preventing future allergic reactions in patients who experience a systemic reaction is based on the correct management of the emergency followed by an accurate diagnosis, prescription of adrenaline autoinjectors, and, where indicated, specific venom immunotherapy. Some epidemiological studies highlight our poor knowledge of this disease and the frequent inadequacy of its management. Moreover, they emphasize the importance of such a life-saving treatment as specific immunotherapy. The availability of high-quality hymenoptera venom extracts for diagnostic and therapeutic use has dramatically improved the prognosis and quality of life of allergic patients. Subcutaneous venom immunotherapy is currently the most effective form of allergen-based immunotherapy, with a carry-over effect lasting up to several years after its interruption. This report on the management of hymenoptera venom-allergic children and adults was prepared by a panel of Italian experts. The main objective of this consensus document is to review the scientific evidence related to diagnosis, therapy, and management of patients allergic to hymenoptera venom. Thus, we can improve our knowledge of the disease and promote good clinical practices. The present document provides practical suggestions for correct diagnosis, prescription of emergency therapy and immunotherapy, and strategies for patient care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-205
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Adults
  • Children
  • Diagnosis
  • Efficacy
  • Hymenoptera
  • Immunotherapy
  • Management
  • Safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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