Background and aim: To evaluate cardiovascular abnormalities in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treated HIV patients with no signs or symptoms of cardiovascular impairment, and to assess the relative role of multiple concomitant risk factors. Methods and results: Forty-four consecutive HIV subjects (mean age 41 ± 6 yrs) were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were HIV infection, CD4 + cell count > 150/ml, HAART treatment for at least 4 years. Metabolic serum levels, morphological and functional echocardiographic parameters were assessed in all subjects. Sixteen healthy age and sex matched subjects with no cardiovascular risk factors were recruited as controls. HIV patients showed increased left ventricular mass index with reduced mid-wall fractional shortening (mFS) when compared to controls (50.2 ± 10.5 vs. 38.6 ± 14.4, p = 0.05 and 18.3 ± 0.6 vs. 21.9 ± 0.7, p <0.05, respectively). Twenty-nine patients were lipodystrophic (LD) and showed a longer HAART period (p = 0.0004) and greater use of protease inhibitors (PI) (p = 0.001). Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was significantly reduced in HIV patients as compared to controls (p <0.0001), as it was in LD subjects when compared to non-lipodystrophic ones (NLD) (p <0.001). Adiponectin concentrations were found to be significantly lower in LD subjects than in NLD ones (7.8 ± 0.8 vs. 13.8 ± 1.2 μg/ml, p = 0.01), and showed a direct correlation with CFR. In multiple regression analysis, insulin, HDL and adiponectin accounted for 63% of CFR variations. Conclusions: Left ventricular hypertrophy, depressed mFS and reduced CFR represent the main signs of subclinical cardiac damage in HIV subjects treated with HAART. Hypoadiponectinemia in these subjects seems to be a metabolic risk factor of cardiovascular impairment.
- Early cardiovascular damage in HIV
- HAART therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine