Patients with familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency very often show progressive glomerulosclerosis with evolution to end-stage disease. High levels of an abnormal lipoprotein (lipoprotein X) cause glomerular capillary endothelial damage. The ultrastructural study of renal biopsy specimens shows characteristic glomerular deposits of membrane-like, cross-striated structures and vacuole structures. The gene encoding for LCAT has been mapped to chromosome 16q22.1, and several mutations of this gene cause LCAT deficiency which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and which is characterized by corneal opacities, normochromic normocytic anemia, and renal dysfunction. Herein we report clinical features and renal histological findings concerning a 24-year-old male patient with classical familial LCAT deficiency due to two different allelic mutations: a nonsense mutation inherited from the father and a missense mutation inherited from the mother. Moreover, the patient showed glomerular histological lesions and an immunofluorescent glomerular pattern typical of hypocomplementemic membranoproliferative type II glomerulonephritis (dense-deposit disease). The nature of electron-dense material that characterizes dense-deposit disease is still unknown, but there are suggestions that some chemical modifications might occur in the renal basement membranes. Therefore, this clinical case might induce to consider possible relations between disorders of the lipoprotein metabolism and renal dense-deposit disease.
- Chronic renal failure
- Dense-deposit disease
- Genetic diseases
- Hereditary nephropathies
- Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency
- Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
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