Hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI)

G. Aimaretti, M. R. Ambrosio, S. Benvenga, G. Borretta, L. De Marinis, E. De Menis, C. Di Somma, M. Faustini-Fustini, S. Grottoli, V. Gasco, M. Gasperi, F. Logoluso, C. Scaroni, G. Giordano, Ezio Ghigo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In adults, hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) should be suspected and diagnosed within an appropriate clinical context. It has been demonstrated that all patients with primary hypothalamic-pituitary diseases before and after any medical intervention (defined as neurosurgery, radiotherapy and medical therapy) are at obvious risk - more than just at high risk - for hypopituitarism (greater than 80% had severe GHD). The same obvious risk applies to patients diagnosed as having congenital or acquired GHD in childhood (between 30% and 50% of patients with severe GHD after retesting). Taking into account the fragility of the infundibular-hypothalamic structure, patients with other common pathological conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) or primary brain tumours (BT) with related medical intervention could be at risk for developing hypopituitarism, including GHD. GHD is the first and most common sign of pituitary impairment. Despite the risk of pituitary dysfunction and the results of some studies that these risks are greater than previously believed, neuroendocrine evaluations are still not routinely included as part of the clinical management plan for patients with TBI and SAH. Preliminary results of a multicenter study performed under the auspices of the Italian Society of Endocrinology underscore the high risk of hypopituitarism and GHD under these clinical conditions. Thus, careful screening of pituitary function should always be performed in patients following TBI and SAH.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGrowth Hormone and IGF Research
Issue numberSUPPL. A
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2004


  • Adulthood
  • Diagnosis
  • Growth hormone deficiency
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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