Hypospadias surgery: When, what and by whom?

Gianantonio Manzoni, Aivar Bracka, Enzo Palminteri, Giacinto Marrocco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hypospadias is repaired by paediatric surgeons, paediatric urologists, adult reconstructive urologists and plastic surgeons. This review is unique in representing all four specialities, to provide a unified policy on the management of hypospadias. The surgeon of whichever speciality should have a dedicated interest in this challenging work, ideally having an annual volume of at least 40-50 cases. The ideal time for primary repair is at 6-12 months old, although when this is not practicable there is another opportunity at 3-4 years old. A surgical protocol is presented which emphasises both functional and cosmetic refinement. Using a logical progression of a very few related procedures allows the reliable correction of almost any hypospadias deformity. A one-stage repair is used when the urethral plate does not require transection and its axial integrity can be maintained. Occasionally, when the plate is of adequate width and depth, it can be tubularized directly using the second stage of the two-stage repair. When (usually) the urethral plate is not adequately developed and requires augmentation before it can be tubularized, then that second-stage procedure is modified by adding a dorsal releasing incision ± a graft (alias Snodgrass and 'Snodgraft' procedures). The two-stage repair offers the most reliable and refined solution for those patients who require transection of the urethral plate and a full circumferential substitution urethroplasty From available evidence this protocol combines excellent function and cosmesis with optimum reliability. Nevertheless, it would be complacent to assume that these gratifying results will be maintained into adult life. We therefore recommend that there is still a need for active follow-up through to genital maturity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1188-1195
Number of pages8
JournalBJU International
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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