Hypothyroidism associated with parathyroid disorders

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Hypothyroidism may occur in association with congenital parathyroid disorders determining parathyroid hormone insufficiency, which is characterized by hypocalcemia and concomitant inappropriately low secretion of parathormone (PTH). The association is often due to loss of function of genes common to thyroid and parathyroid glands embryonic development. Hypothyroidism associated with hypoparathyroidism is generally mild and not associated with goiter; moreover, it is usually part of a multisystemic involvement not restricted to endocrine function as occurs in patients with 22q11 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent disorders. Hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism may also follow endocrine glands' damages due to autoimmunity or chronic iron overload in thalassemic disorders, both genetically determined conditions. Finally, besides PTH deficiency, hypocalcemia can be due to PTH resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism; when hormone resistance is generalized, patients can suffer from hypothyroidism due to TSH resistance. In evaluating patients with hypothyroidism and hypocalcemia, physical examination and clinical history are essential to drive the diagnostic process, while routine genetic screening is not recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-173
Number of pages13
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume31
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2017

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Keywords

  • DiGeorge syndrome
  • hypoparathyroidism
  • parathyroid
  • pseudohypoparathyroidism
  • thyroid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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