Objective: To determine whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome with testicular sperm is superior to that of ejaculated sperm in men with incomplete necrozoospermia, defined as sperm viability ≥5 to ≤45%. Study design: Retrospective study at a Reproductive Medicine Center of a tertiary referral hospital. A total of 231 couples with male infertility due to incomplete necrozoospermia underwent 342 ICSI cycles with freshly ejaculated sperm (ICSI-ejaculated) and 182 cycles with testicular sperm (ICSI-TESE). Results: Overall 1624 MII oocytes were injected in the ICSI-ejaculated group with a fertilisation rate of 60.8%, while in ICSI- TESE cycles the fertilisation rate was 59.6% in 874 MII oocytes. The cleavage rate was higher in ICSI-ejaculated cycles than in ICSI-TESE cycles (96.3% versus 92.9%; p = 0.004). However, the pregnancy and implantation rates per cycle were significantly higher in the ICSI-TESE group (67/182, 36.8% versus 68/342, 19.9% (p = 0.0001); and 23.7% versus 12.7% (p = 0.0001), respectively). The miscarriage rate was similar (ICSI-ejaculated 26.5% versus ICSI-TESE 17.9%, p = 0.301). Live birth rate per cycle in the ICSI-ejaculated group was significantly lower than in the ICSI-TESE (13.7% versus 28.6%, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: In cases of persistent necrozoospermia, testicular sperm should be favoured over ejaculated sperm. These data call for more research to understand the pathophysiology of refractory necrozoospermia.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
- Male infertility
- Testicular sperm extraction (TESE)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology