A monocyte chemotactic activity was found to be released by various types of cultured human cells after appropriate stimulation: normal diploid fibroblasts, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocytes isolated therefrom, and a number of tumor cell lines, including osteosarcoma (MG-63) and hepatoma (Malavu) but not melanoma (Bowes) cells. Cultures of diploid human fibroblasts and these tumor cells stimulated with interleukin (IL) 1 or double-stranded RNA [poly(rI) · poly(rC)], or infected with viruses (measles or rubella viruses) were found to produce chemotactic activity for both monocytes and granulocytes. Media collected from fibroblasts treated with E. coli or IL 6 did not contain such activity. Granulocyte and monocyte chemotactic activities were serologically distinct, and could be separated by successive chromatographical procedures. While the granulocyte chemotactic activity of both fibroblasts and MG-63 cells had previously been identified as granulocyte chemotactic protein/IL 8, the monocyte chemotactic activity from MG-63 cells was identified by amino acid sequence analysis as a different protein recently described to be released by human glioma and myelomonocytic cell lines. In view of the similarity in their chromatographical behavior, monocyte chemotactic activities from fibroblasts, MG-63 cells and fresh monocytes can probably be assigned to identical molecules. Cultures of unfractionated peripheral blood cells, however, were found to release an additional monocyte chemotactic protein, identifiable by amino acid sequence analysis as platelet factor 4.
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