Accumulating evidence suggests that infectious agents may play a role in ocular adnexa lymphomas (OALs) of MALT-type [1-4]. In particular, Chlamydia psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis, has been detected by PCR in most patients from Italy or isolated eastern Asiatic countries with OALs in absence of other Chlamydia species [4-8]. These patients have also been shown to have a complete or partial response to doxycycline, recognized to be a cheap and safe treatment in these patients [5,6]. In contrast, OAL patients from other geographic areas and with different genetic background were found to be negative for C. psittaci DNA or had a quite variable response to antibiotic treatment, assuming that this pathogen might not play a ubiquitous role in OALs and that bacterial infection is not associated with OAL [8-12].
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