Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) factors, especially maximum tumor diameter (MTD), tumor multifocality, portal vein thrombosis (PVT), and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), influence survival. Aim. To examine patterns of tumor factors in large HCC patients. Methods. A database of large HCC patients was examined. Results. A multiple Cox proportional hazard model on death identified low serum albumin levels and the presence of PVT and multifocality, with each having a hazard ratio ≥2.0. All combinations of these three parameters were examined in relation to survival. Using univariate Cox analysis, the combination of albumin >3.5 g/dL and the absence of both PVT and multifocality had the best survival rate, while all combinations that included the presence of PVT had poor survival and hazard ratios. We identified four clinical phenotypes, each with a distinct median survival: patients with or without PVT or multifocality plus serum albumin ≥3.5 (g/dL), with each subgroup displaying high (≥100 IU/mL) or low (<100 IU/mL) blood AFP levels. Across a range of MTDs, we identified only two significant trends, blood AFP and platelets. Conclusions. Patients with large HCCs have distinct phenotypes and survival, as identified by the combination of PVT, multifocality, and blood albumin levels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research