Identification of tissue transglutaminase-reactive lysine residues in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Stefania Orru, Margherita Ruoppolo, Simona Francese, Luigi Vitagliano, Gennaro Marino, Carla Esposito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Polyglutamine domains are excellent substrates for tissue transglutaminase resulting in the formation of cross-links with polypeptides containing lysyl residues. This finding suggests that tissue transglutaminase may play a role in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases associated with polyglutamine expansion. The glycolytic enzyme GAPDH previously was shown to tightly bind several proteins involved in such diseases. The present study confirms that GAPDH is an in vitro lysyl donor substrate of tissue transglutaminase. A dansylated glutamine-containing peptide was used as probe for labeling the amino-donor sites. SDS gel electrophoresis of a time-course reaction mixture revealed the presence of both fluorescent GAPDH monomers and high molecular weight polymers. Western blot analysis performed using antitransglutaminase antibodies reveals that tissue transglutaminase takes part in the formation of heteropolymers. The reactive amino-donor sites were identified using mass spectrometry. Here, we report that of the 26 lysines present in GAPDH, K191, K268, and K331 were the only amino-donor residues modified by tissue transglutaminase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-146
Number of pages10
JournalProtein Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Lysine residues
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Tissue transglutaminase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry


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