IL-10 synergizes with multiple cytokines in enhancing HIV production in cells of monocytic lineage

D. Weissman, G. Poli, A. S. Fauci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Several cytokines, whose expression is increased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, can enhance virus replication in CD4+ T lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes (MP). We have previously reported that interleukin (IL)-10 inhibited HIV replication in acutely infected monocyte- derived macrophages (MDM) at concentrations that completely blocked the production of endogenous tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 from infected cells. In the present study, lower concentrations of IL-10, which were unable to completely suppress endogenous cytokines, paradoxically enhanced HIV replication in MDM induced by other cytokines. This synergistic induction of HIV expression by IL-10 in combination with TNF-α, IL-6, and other cytokines was also observed in the chronically infected promonocytic cell line, U1. The enhancing effect of IL-10 was correlated with an increase in HIV mRNA accumulation and potentiation of phorbol ester-induced long terminal repeat-driven transcription that was independent of the NF-κB and Sp1 transcription factors. Thus, IL-10 is a cytokine capable of exerting complex regulatory effects on HIV expression in MP as a function of its own concentration and of the presence of other HIV regulatory cytokines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-449
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • HIV
  • IL-10
  • Interleukin-6
  • Synergy
  • Transcriptional activation
  • Tumor necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Immunology and Allergy


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