Several allergic and immunologic diseases including asthma, food allergy (FA), chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), atopic dermatitis (AD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Behçet’s disease (BD) are characterized by the involvement of Th2 immunity. Several mediators lead to immunoglobulin (Ig)E production, thus including key cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Among them, IL-31 and IL-33 have been recently studied as novel biomarkers and future therapeutic targets for allergic and immunological disorders. IL-31 is a proinflammatory cytokine—it regulates cell proliferation and is involved in tissue remodeling. IL-33, acting through its receptor suppression of tumorigenity (ST2L), is an alarmin cytokine from the IL-1 family, whose expression is mediated by tissue damage. The latter has a pleiotropic effect, as it may modulate specific and innate immune cells functions. To date, several researchers have investigated the involvement of IL-31 and IL-33 in several allergic and immune-mediated diseases. Further studies are needed to understand the future applications of these molecules as novel therapeutic agents. This paper aims to give the readers a complete and updated review of IL-31 and IL-33 involvement among the most common autoimmune and allergic disorders.
- Autoimmune disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry