Image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer using 3 different techniques: Localization data of 186 patients

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Aims and Background: This study evaluates 3 different imaging modalities-ultrasound (US), stereoscopic X-ray imaging of implanted markers (Visicoils) (X-ray), and kV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-to assess interfraction and intrafraction localization error during conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Study design: The study population consisted of 186 consecutive prostate cancer patients treated with an image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) hypofractionated protocol using 3 techniques: 32 with X-ray, 30 with CBCT, and 124 with US. Treatment dose of 70.2 Gy was delivered in 26 fractions with a conformal dynamic arcs technique. Interfraction prostate localization errors were determined for the 3 techniques. Moreover, interfraction and intrafraction prostate motion in terms of translations and rotations, as well as residual errors, were determined with X-ray. Results: The systematic and random components of the prostate localization errors were as follows: (1) with X-ray 3.0 ± 3.4, 2.3 ± 2.7, 1.8 ± 2.3 mm in anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) directions and 1.8° ± 1.2°, 2.3° ± 1.5°, 2.7° ± 3.1°, for the yaw, roll, and pitch rotations; (2) with CBCT 3.5 ± 4.2, 3.3 ± 3.3, 2.5 ± 3.1 mm in AP, SI, and LR directions; (3) with US 3.7 ± 4.7, 3.4 ± 4.3, 2.3 ± 3.5 mm in AP, SI, and LR directions. Residual errors with X-ray were less than 1 mm in all directions. Intrafraction prostate motion of less than 0.5 mm in LR and of the order of 1 mm in AP and SI directions was found. This led to a significant reduction of the margins, potentially important for dose escalation studies. Conclusions: Daily on-line IGRT with stereoscopic X-ray imaging allowed a consistent PTV margin reduction considering residual interfraction prostate localization error and intrafraction motion. X-ray offers the best compromise among accuracy, reliability, dose to the patient, and time investment for daily IGRT treatment of prostate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-280
Number of pages8
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2015


  • Hypofractionation
  • Image-guided radiotherapy
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology
  • Medicine(all)


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