Imaging the right heart pulmonary circulation unit: Insights from advanced ultrasound techniques

F. Ferrara, L. Gargani, E. Ostenfeld, M. D'Alto, J. Kasprzak, D. Voilliot, C. Selton-Suty, O. Vriz, A.M. Marra, P. Argiento, A.A. Stanziola, A. Cittadini, A. D'Andrea, E. Bossone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The right heart pulmonary circulation unit (RH-PCU) is a key determinant of prognosis in several cardiorespiratory diseases. Although right heart catheterization is considered the gold standard for pulmonary hemodynamic assessment, a comprehensive cardiovascular ultrasound approach is an essential step in the diagnostic–prognostic clinical pathway of patients with suspect or overt pulmonary hypertension. The exponential development of advanced ultrasound techniques (strain, 3-dimensional echocardiography and lung ultrasound) has led to new insights into the evaluation of RH-PCU structure and function, overcoming some limitations of standard Doppler echocardiography. In the near future, exercise Doppler echocardiography may become a useful technique for detecting a latent stage of pulmonary hypertension and for evaluating right ventricular contractile reserve. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1216-1231
Number of pages16
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • echocardiography
  • lung ultrasound
  • right heart pulmonary circulation unit
  • strain
  • stress echocardiography
  • three-dimensional echocardiography
  • cardiopulmonary exercise test
  • cardiopulmonary hemodynamics
  • cardiopulmonary insufficiency
  • coronary flow reserve
  • Doppler echocardiography
  • echography
  • heart output
  • heart ventricle ejection
  • human
  • lung circulation
  • lung examination
  • lung parenchyma
  • lung vascular resistance
  • priority journal
  • pulmonary hypertension
  • Review
  • three dimensional echocardiography
  • transthoracic echocardiography


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