OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the success rate and the acute and 12-month clinical outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) in the contemporary era. BACKGROUND: The technique of PCI involving CTO has improved over time. However, limited data on acute and follow-up results in patients treated with PCI on CTO in recent years are available. METHODS: Four hundred nineteen consecutive patients scheduled for PCI of CTO of ≥30 days of duration were enrolled in 29 centers; 390 CTOs were confirmed in 376 patients in an independent core laboratory. The end points were technical and procedural success, in-hospital and 12-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurrence, and 12-month symptomatic status. RESULTS: Technical and procedural success was obtained in 77.2% and 73.3% of lesions, respectively. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events occurred in 5.1% of patients. Multivariate analysis identified CTO length >15 mm or not measurable, moderate to severe calcifications, duration ≥180 days, and multivessel disease as significant predictors of PCI failure. At 12 months, patients with a successful procedure experienced a lower incidence of cardiac deaths or myocardial infarction (1.05% vs. 7.23%, p = 0.005), a reduced need for coronary artery bypass surgery (2.45% vs. 15.7%, p <0.0001), and were more frequently free of angina (88.7% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.008) compared with patients who had an unsuccessful procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Successful PCI was achieved in a high percentage of CTOs with a low incidence of complications. At one-year follow-up, patients with successful PCI of a CTO had a significantly better clinical outcome than those whose PCI was unsuccessful.
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