Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is seen in a sizable portion of aMCI patients; correlates predicting such conversion are poorly defined but neuroinflammation and the reactivation of chronic viral infections are suspected to play a role in this phenomenon. We analyzed these aspects in two homogeneous groups of aMCI who did or did not convert to AD over a 24-months period. Results showed that at baseline in those aMCI individuals who did not convert to AD: 1) Aβ1-42 stimulated production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL1β by CD14+ cells was significantly reduced (p = 0.01), 2) CD14+/IL-33+ cells were increased (p = 0.0004); 3) MFI of TLR8 and TLR9 was significantly increased, and 4) better preserved hippocampus volumes were observed and correlated with IL33+/CD14+ cells. Notably, Aβ1-42 stimulated production of the antiviral cytokine IFN-λ was increased as well in non-AD converters, although with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). Data herein indicating that proinflammatory cytokines are reduced, whereas IFN-λ production and TLR8 and 9 MFI are augmented in those aMCI in whom AD conversion is not observed suggest that the ability to mount stronger antiviral response within an antiiflammatory milieu associates with lack of AD conversion.
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