Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death. The immune-rich contexture of the HCC microenvironment makes this tumour an appealing target for immune-based therapies. Here, we discuss how the functional characteristics of the liver microenvironment can potentially be harnessed for the treatment of HCC. We will review the evidence supporting a therapeutic role for vaccines, cell-based therapies and immune-checkpoint inhibitors and discuss the potential for patient stratification in an attempt to overcome the series of failures that has characterised drug development in this disease area.
- Cancer Vaccines/immunology
- Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/immunology
- Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends
- Liver Neoplasms/immunology
- Tumor Microenvironment/immunology