Immune-based therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

David J Pinato, Nadia Guerra, Petros Fessas, Ravindhi Murphy, Takashi Mineo, Francesco A Mauri, Sujit K Mukherjee, Mark Thursz, Ching Ngar Wong, Rohini Sharma, Lorenza Rimassa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death. The immune-rich contexture of the HCC microenvironment makes this tumour an appealing target for immune-based therapies. Here, we discuss how the functional characteristics of the liver microenvironment can potentially be harnessed for the treatment of HCC. We will review the evidence supporting a therapeutic role for vaccines, cell-based therapies and immune-checkpoint inhibitors and discuss the potential for patient stratification in an attempt to overcome the series of failures that has characterised drug development in this disease area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3620-3637
Number of pages18
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • Cancer Vaccines/immunology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/immunology
  • Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Liver/immunology
  • Liver Neoplasms/immunology
  • Tumor Microenvironment/immunology


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