Immune defects in families and patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy

E. Mariani, A. Facchini, M. C. Honorati, E. Lalli, E. Berardesca, P. Ghetti, S. Marinoni, F. Nuzzo, G. C B Astaldi Ricotti, M. Stefanini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by photosensitivity, a high incidence of cancer in sun-exposed portions of the skin and a reduced capacity to repair the u.v.-induced DNA damage. One of the XP mutations (XP-D) has also been identified in patients affected by trichothiodystrophy (TTD), a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by brittle hair, mental and physical retardation, peculiar face and ichthyosis. However, in these patients there is no evidence of increased skin tumour incidence. Since an impairment of cell-mediated immunity has been proposed as a co-factor in the cancer proneness of XP patients, we investigated the involvement of immune defect(s) in five XP patients, five TTD patients, their parents, and 24 TTD relatives. We evaluated the phenotype of circulating lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cell lytic activity, target cell binding of NK cells at single cell level and the effect of interferons (IFN) α and β on NK cell activity. The relative proportion of CD3+ and CD4+ circulating lymphocytes was reduced in XP but not in TTD patients. NK cell lytic activity was decreased in XP patients and their mothers, but their fathers showed normal lytic activity. NK activity varied among TTD families: four out of five patients and their relatives presented low NK cell activity, and one family was normal. In TTD family members, NK activity increased after incubation with IFN-α or IFN-β, but never reached normal values. In contrast, in XP patients and their mothers, the defect was almost completely corrected after in vitro incubation with IFN-α or IFN-β. Our study indicates impaired NK lytic activity in the majority of TTD and XP patients and that this defect is present also in members of their families. In addition, XP patients present a low number of circulating T cells. These multiple abnormalities, together with DNA repair defects, could be related to the increased cancer risk in XP patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)376-382
Number of pages7
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Volume88
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1992

Keywords

  • Cancer proneness
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Natural killer cells
  • Trichothiodystrophy
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

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    Mariani, E., Facchini, A., Honorati, M. C., Lalli, E., Berardesca, E., Ghetti, P., Marinoni, S., Nuzzo, F., Astaldi Ricotti, G. C. B., & Stefanini, M. (1992). Immune defects in families and patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 88(3), 376-382.